Doctrine of Discovery: Offer & Counter offer

King John Concession of 1213 of England and Ireland to the Pope. Unam Sanctam Bull of 1302, Boniface VIII proclaimed that it “is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject (son) to the Roman pontiff (father)”.

Dum Diversas Bull of 1452, Pope Nicholas V, It authorized Afonso V of Portugal to conquer Saracens and pagans and consign them to “perpetual slavery.”Pope Calixtus III reiterated the bull in 1456 with Etsi cuncti, renewed by Pope Sixtus IV in 1481 and Pope Leo X in 1514 with Precelse denotionis.

Romanus Pontifex Bull of 1455 has served as the basis of legal arguments for taking Native American lands by “discovery”. The logic of the rights of conquest and discovery were followed in all western nations including those that never recognised papal authority.

The concept of the consignment of exclusive spheres of influence to certain nation states was extended to the Americas in 1493 by Pope Alexander VI with Inter caetera.

These offers being carried to the new world (North America c. 1492 (A’nowara:kowa (Great Turtle Island))) where the Onkwehonwe responded to these offers by conditionally accepting the Bulls by issuance of the Kuswhenta (Two Row Wampum ( = ), a perpetual reservation of sovereignty, interest and law on A’nowara:kowa), a counter offer to not be like father and son but we shall be like brothers:

“You say that you are our Father and I am your Son We will not be like Father and Son, but like Brothers. This wampum belt confirms our words. Neither of us will make compulsory laws or interfere in the internal affairs of the other. Neither of us will try to steer the other’s vessel/vassal. Never to outpace the other, for as long as the sun shines and the grass grows”